The downward drag force acting on a pile due to downward movement of surrounding soil.
Types of mat foundation in which the weight of excavation is equal to sum of raft weight and load from superstructure.
The bearing capacity of sandy soil depends upon the width of foundation. The width of plate is 5 times less than width of pit. That’s why……..
Rankine and Coulombs theory are applicable only for rigid retaining walls rotating about base.
Sheeting and Bracing system are flexible (not rigid) and rotation takes place at the top of the wall.
Unyielding Means Wall is at rest. So, calculate Earth pressure at rest. (Yeilding is restrained = Earth pressure at rest)
Percussion Drilling (For boring in Rocky area such as construction of bridge over river)